Its Day 29 of my 100 Days of Cloud journey, and todays post continues my learning through the next 2 modules of my AWS Skillbuilder course on AWS Cloud Practitioner Essentials.
This is the official pre-requisite course on the AWS Skillbuilder platform (which for comparison is the AWS equivalent of Microsoft Learn) to prepare candidates for the AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner certification exam.
Let’s have a quick overview of what the 2 modules I completed today covered, the technologies discussed and key takeaways.
Module 3 – Global Infrastructure and Reliability
AWS operates Data Center facilities across the globe, giving customers the choice to select the correct region to host their AWS Infrastructure based on the following factors:
- Compliance with Data Governance and Legal Requirements – this determines where your data can be stored based on data governance, for example certain types of EU Data cannot be stored in a US Data Centre at it won’t be covered by GDPR.
- Proximity to Customers – the closer your infrastructure is to the customers or staff who will be consuming it, the lower the latency will be and that will give better performance.
- Available services within a Region – Some services may not be available in the closest region to you, so you may need to select a different one. This information is available in the AWS Portal when you are creating the service.
- Pricing – based on the tax laws of different nations, it may be up to 50% more expensive to host infrastructure in a certain nation or region.
The need for availability and flexibility is key in any Cloud Architecture. AWS operates a number of Availability Zones, which are either a single data center or a group of data centers within a region. These are located tens of miles apart from each other and have low latency between them, so if a disaster occurs in one part of the region, the service is not affected if it needs to fail over to another data center.
Amazon CloudFront is an example of a CDN (Content Delivery Network). Amazon CloudFront uses a network of edge locations to cache content and deliver content to customers all over the world. When content is cached, it is stored locally as a copy. This content might be video files, photos, webpages, and so on. Edge Locations are separate from regions, and run the AWS DNS Service called Amazon Route 53 (which I cover in more detail below).
AWS Outpost is where AWS installs an AWS mini-region in your own-premises data center. At first look, it looks to be the same type of service as Azure Stack.
So from this, we can say:
- AWS has data centers in multiple regions across the world
- Each Region contains Availability Zones that allows you to run highly available infrastructure across physically separated buildings which are tens of miles apart.
- Amazon CloudFront runs in AWS Edge locations (separate from regions), hosting DNS (Amazon Route 53) and a Content Delivery Network (CDN) to deliver content closer to customers no matter where they are located.
Finally in this module, we looked at the different ways that you can create, manage, and interact with AWS Services:
- AWS Management Console – a web-based interface for accessing and managing AWS services. The console includes wizards and automated workflows that can simplify the process of completing tasks.
- AWS Command Line Interface – AWS CLI enables you to control multiple AWS services directly from the command line within one tool. AWS CLI is available for users on Windows, macOS, and Linux. AWS CLI makes actions scriptable and repeatable.
- Software Development Kits – The SDKs allow you to interact with AWS resources through various programming languages.
- AWS Elastic Beanstalk – takes application code and desired configurations and then builds the infrastructure for you based on the configurations provides
- AWS CloudFormation – Infrastructure as Code tool, which uses JSON or YAML based documents called CloudFormation templates. CloudFormation supports many different AWS resources from storage, databases, analytics, machine learning, and more
Module 4 – Networking
Module 4 deals with networking, and the concept of Amazon Virtual Private Cloud, or VPC.
When I first heard of VPC’s, I assumed they were like Resource Groups in Azure. Well, yes and no – a VPC is effectively an isolated Virtual Network that you then carve up into Subnets and can then deploy resources such as EC2 instances into those subnets.
Because the VPC is isolated by default when you get it, you need to add an Internet Gateway to the perimeter which connects the VPC to the internet and provides Public Access.
If you need to connect your corporate network to the VPC, you have 2 options:
- Virtual Private Gateway allows VPN Connectivity between your on-premises corporate or private network and the VPC.
- AWS Direct Connect allows you to establish a dedicated private connection between your corporate network and the VPC. Think of this as the same as Azure ExpressRoute.
So now we have our VPC and access into it, we need to control that access to both the subnets and the EC2 instances running within the subnets. We have 2 methods of controlling that access:
- A network access control list (ACL) is a virtual firewall that controls inbound and outbound traffic at the subnet level.
- Each AWS account includes a default network ACL. When configuring your VPC, you can use your account’s default network ACL or create custom network ACLs.
- By default, your account’s default network ACL allows all inbound and outbound traffic, but you can modify it by adding your own rules.
- Network ACLs perform stateless packet filtering. They remember nothing and check packets that cross the subnet border each way: inbound and outbound.
- A security group is a virtual firewall that controls inbound and outbound traffic for an Amazon EC2 instance.
- By default, a security group denies all inbound traffic and allows all outbound traffic. You can add custom rules to configure which traffic to allow or deny.
- Security groups perform stateful packet filtering. They remember previous decisions made for incoming packets.
So again, none of this is unfamiliar when compared against the services Azure offer in comparison.
Finally, the module covered Amazon Route 53 which is the AWS DNS Service. However, Route 53 does much more than just standard DNS, such as:
- Manage DNS records for Domain Names
- Register new domain names directly in Route 53
- Direct traffic to endpoints using several different routing policies, such as latency-based routing, geolocation DNS, geoproximity and weighted round robin.
And that’s all for today! Hope you enjoyed this post, join me again next time for more AWS Core Concepts!